دلار آمریکا، سبز ترین پول جهان، در نیم نگاه

صد دلاری موسوم به بنجامین ارزشمند ترین اسکناس رایج آمریکا است.

دلار وجه رایج کشور آمریکا و یکی از رایج ترین واحدهای پولی در جهان است که بیش از ۸۴ درصد از مبادلات بین المللی جهان با این پول انجام می شود. این واحد پولی با اینکه گران ترین واحد پولی جهان نیست اما معتبرترین واحد پولی جهان شناخته می شود و عنوان ذخیره ارزجهانی را یدک می کشد. در ششم ژوئیه سال ۱۷۸۵کنگره آمریکا به اتفاق آرا دلار را واحد پول آمریکا معرفی کرد درحالیکه تا پیش از استقلال ایالات متحده لیره بریتانیا در ۱۳ مهاجر نشین انگلیسی تبار آمریکای شمالی پول رایج بود. در جریان جنگهای داخلی موسوم به جنگهای شمال و جنوب، جنگجویان جنوبی به دلیل مخالفت با سیاستهای بریتانیا و مهاجر نشینهای شمالی از سکه های نقره‌ اسپانیا که در مکزیک رواج داشت به عنوان واحد داد و ستد استفاده کردند. این واحد پولی که نوعی پزو بود تالر، دالر، تلار و دلار نامیده می شد.

نماد دلار «$» است که درباره انتخاب حرف اس با یک یا دو خط عمودی بر آن منابع و نظریات مختلفی عنوان شده است. عده ای دلیل این دو خط عمودی را ناشی از ادغام حرف U و S می دانند و عده ای دیگر نیز انتقال نماد هرکولس که دو ستون است از پزوی اسپانیایی به دلار آمریکا را وجه انتخاب این نماد می دانند.

دلار آمریکا به دو شکل سکه و اسکناس موجود است. مسکوکات دلار آمریکا در وجوه مختلف ارائه شده اند که بعضی از این وجوه اینک از دسترس خارج شده اند و دیگر ضرب نمی شوند. سکه های دلار عبارتند از :

  • نیم سنتی (غیر رایج)

  • یک سنتی موسوم به پنی و رایج

  • دو سنتی (غیر رایج)

  • سه سنتی (غیر رایج)

  • پنج سنتی یا هالف دایم (غیر رایج)

  • ده سنتی موسوم به دایم و رایج

  • بیست سنتی (غیر رایج)

  • بیست و پنج سنتی موسوم به کوارتر و رایج

  • پنجاه سنتی

  • سکه یک دلاری و رایج

  • یک چهارم عقاب (سکه طلا و غیر رایج)

  • سه ، چهار و پنج دلاری (سکه طلا و غیر رایج)

  • سکه ده دلاری یا عقاب (سکه طلا و غیر رایج)

  • سکه بیست دلاری یا عقاب دوبل (سکه طلا و غیر رایج)

    سکه یک دلاری بزرگترین سکه رایج دلار به شمار می رود.

مسکوکات دلار آمریکا در کارخانه های ضرب سکه در واشنگتن، دنور کلرادو، فیلادلفیا، سان فرانسیسکو، وست پوینت نیویورک و فورت ناکس کنتاکی ضرب می شود. در صورت تمایل به کسب اطلاعات بیشتر و آشنایی با مراحل ضرب سکه و همچنین تاریخچه مسکوکات آمریکا به این پیوند مراجعه نمایید.

اسکناس های دلار آمریکا با ارزشهای مختلف چاپ می شود. این اسکناسها که پشت سبز (گرین بک) در اصطلاح عموم نامیده میشوند عبارتند از :

  • یک دلاری با تصویر جرج واشنگتن

  • دو دلاری با تصویر توماس جفرسون

  • پنج دلاری با تصویر آبراهام لینکلن

  • ده دلاری با تصویر الکساندر همیلتون

  • بیست دلاری با تصویر اندرو جکسون

  • پنجاه دلاری با تصویر اولیسیس گرانت

  • صد دلاری با تصویر بنجامین فرانکلین

  • پانصد دلاری با تصویر ویلیام مک کینلی (به دلیل ارزش زیاد از گردش خارج شده است)

  • هزار دلاری با تصویر گروور کلیولند (به دلیل ارزش زیاد از گردش خارج شده است)

  • پنج هزار دلاری با تصویر جیمز مدیسون (به دلیل ارزش زیاد از گردش خارج شده است)

  • ده هزار دلاری با تصویر سلمان چیس (به دلیل ارزش زیاد از گردش خارج شده است)

به دلیل رواج و گردش زیاد دلار این واحد پولی از ظرایف امنیتی متعددی بهره می برد اما به دلیل افزایش مهارت جاعلان این ظرایف امنیتی هر از چندی تغییر می کند و موارد امنیتی جدیدی چون هالوگرام، واترمارک و جوهرهای متغیر استفاده می شود.

تا سال ۲۰۰۴ دلار فقط با دو رنگ سبز و مشکی منتشر می شود و موم های طلایی داشت اما از سال ۲۰۰۴ رنگهای بنفش و نارنجی نیز به آن افزوده شده است.

چاپخانه های چاپ دلار از امنیت بسیار بالایی برخوردارند و مراحل تولید اسکناسها در آن با صدها دوربین امنیتی کنترل می شود. کاغذهای چاپ اسکناس نیز دارای ویژگی های متعددی هستند که از لحاظ الیاف، دارابودن طرح سایه یا واتر مارک و دیگر ضرایب امنیتی متمایزند. چاپخانه های چاپ دلار آمریکا در شهرهای واشنگتن و فورتورث تکزاس واقع است. این چاپخانه ها ۱۵۰ سال قدمت دارند و از دستگاههای چاپ اسکناس مخصوصی استفاده می کنند. بازدید از این چاپخانه ها برای عموم آزاد است. در صورت تمایل به کسب اطلاعات بیشتر به پیوند مراجعه نمایید.

پول درگردش عمر محدودی دارد و بسته به گردش و براساس یک نمودار تجربی از گردونه خارج می شود.

مدت گردش اسکناسها در نظام مالی جهان عبارتست از:

  • یک دلاری کمتر از ۵ سال

  • پنج دلاری و ده دلاری کمتر از ۴ سال

  • بیست دلاری ۷ سال

  • پنجاه دلاری کمتر از ۱۲ سال

  • صد دلاری ۲۱ سال و نیم

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