YaleGlobal. September 18, 2014.
Ebola is spreading quickly in West Africa and, with global air travel, could quickly hop new borders. The health infrastructure of West Africa is weak, with limited resources and trained personnel. Prevention is the goal for a virus with no approved vaccine or therapeutic. Funding is scarce, even for premier researchers with the World Health Organization and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control. Nations with advanced health systems could take the lead by imposing a small tax on international air tickets, argues the author. A $3 tax could raise $500 million per year, funding research and development for vaccines, therapeutics or diagnostics for Ebola and other emerging infectious diseases. Infectious diseases leave behind a trail of death and economic harm, and a massive, well-funded response is in the interest of all. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
http://yaleglobal.yale.edu/content/how-fund-ebola-fight [HTML format].
Congressional Research Service. August 26, 2014.
In July 2014, two U.S. citizen health workers contracted Ebola in Liberia and were first provided medication that had shown promise in animal studies but that had not yet been tested in humans. They were evacuated to the United States to receive additional care. Debate in the United States has ensued regarding entry and exit rights of people infected with communicable diseases; whether the international community (including the United States) had responded early and effectively enough to contain the virus; the appropriate use of experimental drugs that had not yet been tested for human safety and effectiveness, including how to choose recipients of scarce and sometimes costly drug supplies and how to arrange dispensing to allow analysis of safety and effectiveness; and feasible approaches to accelerating drug and vaccine development and the scale-up of manufacturing capacity for investigational products.
http://fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R43697.pdf [PDF format, 26 pages].
Center for Strategic & International Studies. December 17, 2012.
This paper provides an overview of the global polio eradication effort, emphasizing the U.S. role. The purpose is to explain how the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) came to where it is today and discuss plans for moving it forward. [Note: contains copyrighted material].
http://csis.org/files/publication/121217_Bristol_USRolePolio_Web.pdf [PDF format, 24 pages].
Congressional Research Service. October 10, 2012.
The President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is the largest bilateral health initiative in the world. The 2003 pledge of President George W. Bush to spend $15 billion over five years on fighting HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria was considered groundbreaking. The initiative challenged the international community to reject claims that large-scale HIV/AIDS treatment plans could not be carried out in low-resource settings. In December 2002, one month before PEPFAR was announced, only 50,000 people of the estimated 4 million requiring antiretroviral (ARV) medicines in sub-Saharan Africa were receiving treatment. By the end of FY2004, 155,000 people were receiving treatment through PEPFAR.
http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R42776.pdf [PDF format, 17 pages].