The U.S. Role in Global Polio Eradication

On January 8, 2013, in Global Issues, Health, by editor1

Center for Strategic & International Studies. December 17, 2012.

This paper provides an overview of the global polio eradication effort, emphasizing the U.S. role. The purpose is to explain how the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) came to where it is today and discuss plans for moving it forward. [Note: contains copyrighted material].

http://csis.org/files/publication/121217_Bristol_USRolePolio_Web.pdf [PDF format, 24 pages].

Congressional Research Service. October 10, 2012.

The President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is the largest bilateral health initiative in the world. The 2003 pledge of President George W. Bush to spend $15 billion over five years on fighting HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria was considered groundbreaking. The initiative challenged the international community to reject claims that large-scale HIV/AIDS treatment plans could not be carried out in low-resource settings. In December 2002, one month before PEPFAR was announced, only 50,000 people of the estimated 4 million requiring antiretroviral (ARV) medicines in sub-Saharan Africa were receiving treatment. By the end of FY2004, 155,000 people were receiving treatment through PEPFAR.

http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R42776.pdf [PDF format, 17 pages].

Trends in Tuberculosis — United States, 2011

On March 28, 2012, in Health, by editor1

Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. March 23, 2012.

Despite the continued decline in U.S. tuberculosis (TB) cases and rates since 1993, the 2011 rate of 3.4 per 100,000 population has not achieved the 2010 goal of TB elimination (less than one case per 1,000,000) established in 1989. Although TB cases and rates decreased among foreign-born and U.S.-born persons in 2011, foreign-born persons and U.S.-born racial/ethnic minorities continue to be affected disproportionately.

http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/wk/mm6111.pdf [PDF format, 32 pages].

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U.S. Government Accountability Office. March 9, 2012.

U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and university researchers identified several treatments administered before cattle are slaughtered, or preslaughter interventions, that could reduce Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in cattle. Such preslaughter interventions include bacteriophages (viruses that infect and kill bacteria), probiotics, vaccines, and sodium chlorate. However, few manufacturers have submitted applications for preslaughter intervention products to target STEC according to officials from USDA and the Food and Drug Administration. One exception is for vaccines to reduce STEC O157:H7.

http://gao.gov/assets/590/589160.pdf [PDF format, 34 pages].

Congressional Research Service. January 5, 2012.

Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most widespread infectious diseases in the world, infecting an average of 9 million people annually. Although TB is curable, more than 1 million TB-related deaths occur each year. Due in part to a growing global response to TB, progress has been made in combating the disease. Globally, new TB infection rates have begun to slowly decline and TB mortality rates have decreased significantly since 1990. At the same time, absolute numbers of people infected with TB, particularly in Asia and Africa, continue to rise. Congress has recognized TB as an important humanitarian issue and increasingly as a potential threat to global security. In its second session, the 112th Congress will likely debate the appropriate funding levels and optimum strategy for addressing the continued challenge of global TB.

http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41643.pdf [PDF format, 15 pages].

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