Strategic Studies Institute. October 16, 2014.

Currently, there is no internationally accepted definition of when hostile actions in cyberspace are recognized as attacks, let alone acts of war. Although many of the challenges associated with this conundrum are common with those of the traditional domains, land, sea, and air, how should senior policymakers and decisionmakers address the unique vexations related to the complex and dynamic character of conflict in the cyberspace domain? [PDF format, 119 pages].

The Brookings Institution. June 27, 2013.

On June 27, the Center for 21st Century Security and Intelligence at Brookings hosted General Martin E. Dempsey, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, for keynote remarks and a discussion of the military’s role in cyberspace and the threat that cyberattacks pose to the U.S. [PDF format, 43 pages].

 Director of National Intelligence, James Clapper presents the U.S. Intelligence Community’s 2013 Worldwide Threat Assessment Statement for Record before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, March 12, 2013.

“The Intelligence Community is committed every day to providing the nuanced, multidisciplinary intelligence that policymakers, diplomats, warfighters, and international and domestic law enforcement need to protect American lives and America’s interests anywhere in the world.” [PDF format, 34 pages].

Center for Strategic and International Studies. February 8, 2013.

This report looks at the political-military aspects of cybersecurity and attempts to place it in the larger context of international security. Cybersecurity has been an issue for national security since the 1990s, but the U.S. response has been ad hoc and reactive, marked by uncertainty over how to deal with a major new problem for international security. This report identifies six principles that should guide the United States in developing a strategic approach. [Note: contains copyrighted material]. [PDF format, 70 pages].

Congressional Research Service. November 9, 2012. 

For more than a decade, various experts have expressed increasing concerns about cybersecurity, in light of the growing frequency, impact, and sophistication of attacks on information systems in the United States and abroad. Consensus has also been building that the current legislative framework for cybersecurity might need to be revised. The complex federal role in cybersecurity involves both securing federal systems and assisting in protecting nonfederal systems. Under current law, all federal agencies have cybersecurity responsibilities relating to their own systems, and many have sector-specific responsibilities for critical infrastructure. [PDF format, 66 pages].