Congressional Research Service. April 10, 2012.
The rapidly increasing and geographically expanding use of hydraulic fracturing, along with a growing number of citizen complaints and state investigations of well water contamination attributed to this practice, has led to calls for greater state and/or federal environmental regulation and oversight of this activity. This report reviews past and proposed treatment of hydraulic fracturing under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), the principal federal statute for regulating the underground injection of fluids to protect groundwater sources of drinking water. It reviews current SDWA provisions for regulating underground injection activities, and discusses some possible implications of, and issues associated with, enactment of legislation authorizing the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate hydraulic fracturing under this statute.
http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41760.pdf [PDF format, 38 pages].